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Siddhartha Gautama: The lord Buddha.

Siddhartha Gautama. The man who later came to be known as the Buddha could lead a comfortable, carefree life. But he devoted himself to the search for truth and understanding in order to end human suffering. Later in life Gautama was given the name Buddha which means “enlightened” Buddha was regarded as enlightened because he had gained a spiritual understanding of his teachings from the foundation of Buddhism which is one of the world's major religions.

Buddha was born about 563 BC in Nepal. His family were nobles and heroes. They wanted him to be a hero too. But from childhood Buddha was quiet and thoughtful. He did not like the good life of his father's palace. He found it dull. So he started wandering in the countryside, thinking seriously about the right way to live. One day, about 533 BC, the Buddha met three men. The first was old, the second was sick, and the third was dead. Looking at Buddha he saw that the world was full of suffering. Why this he wondered if it could end.

The Buddha then met a fourth monk who lived on request. The monk was calm and quiet so the Buddha decided to try to live like him. The Buddha traveled extensively to study with Hindu teachers but their religious ideas did not satisfy him. Buddha also spent time alone thinking and meditating in 528 BC, He was sitting under a tree when he suddenly heard that he understood suffering. It was caused by the people themselves if they lived a better life would end. The Buddha said that everyone should try to be submissive to the generous and compassionate people and should refrain from violence and exercise self-control.

Buddha spent his entire life teaching and preaching. Many people followed him and some became monks and nuns. Others use his ideas to guide their daily lives. A new religion called Buddhism flourished and spread in many parts of the world. Buddha died in Nepal when he was about 80 years old. Today, he is still revered by millions in many lands.


Laxmi Prasad Devkota: The greatpoet in Nepali Literature.

Laxmi Prasad Devkota was born as a son of Tilmadhav Devkota and Amar Rajyalaxmi Devkota in kartik 27,1966 BS in Dhobidhara, Kathmandu while the entire Nepalese were celebrating the laxmipooja during the festival of Tihar. Laxmi Prasad Devkota was BA BL (Bachelor in arts and Bachelor in Law) from formal Education. He was an extremely and powerful poet who  remains one of the most widely read authors today. He excelled not only as a poet But also an essayist, storyteller, novelist and more furthermore, he experimented in many genres of literature and gave the nepali language a flavor and character that many genres of literature and gave the nepali language a flavor and character that  many present day authors emulate. He compose epics in Nepali language . He was the prolife author with spontaneous overflow of words and phrases Humanitarian principles were the guide lines in his life. 

Devkota has proved him a multidimensional personality through his creation. He has played a singficant role for the development of nepali literature. He was committed for the democratic system in Nepal. He played the superb role for the establishment of the tribhuvan university( The only university in the then Nepal) He became the minister for education in 2013 Bs. During his tenure of ministry he promoted the opening of the schools throughout the country and made the nepali language principle medium o feducation. He has also helped establish the literary institution (presently Nepal academy)

 Giving a glimpse to his creations shakuntal maharana pratap, Banakusum, and prithiraj  Chauhan the great epics are the unique signature to nepali literature. Muna madan, luni, kunjini, srijamata and more epics have also been awarded to  Nepali literature  Laxami Nibandha sangraha and laxmi katha sangraha are the best compositions to the respected genres of  the literature. Yatri( the traveler), pagal (the lunatic), Basanta (The spring) and many more of his poems have the grater influence in literature. Such a way, Devkota a litterateur with the virtue of multidimensional  personality  takes a significant credit for the enhancement of Nepali literature. Popularly known mahakabi, has over five dozens to his credit with several more wait to be published.

 Form the biography of such a great personality, who left the influences for the enhancement of language and literature one can learn much and more. Such an unforgettable pillar with his greater contribution and influence closed his physical eyes forever in 2016 BS because of the fatal disease the cancer. Physically he is no more now but he always brightens in the sky of Nepali literature.

Laxmi Prasad Devkota.


BP Koirala: A Politician andLiterature.

Bp koirala was born in Bhadra 24, 1971 Bs, in Banaras India. He was the  eldest son of Krishna Prasad koirala  and Dibya koirala. He was graduated in the faculties of Humanities and social science and in Law. He was not only active in politics but also equally active in literature throughout his life.To the field of literature, he made nepali literature enrich through his compositions. He composed novels and stories much, Among the publications doshi chasma, and swait Bhairabi are the best known stories. Narendra Dai, sumnima, Modi aain, Tin Ghumti, Aama, Babu Ra Chhora are the popular novels His atmabritanta has got a peak and the jail journal was  writtern in the sundarijal jail. Composing and publishing such valuable crations he has given a greater influence to Nepali literature introducing the fraud's psychology. Sociology and psychological presentation in Nepali literature through his creations.


To the filed of politics, he became an active and true patriotic freedom fighter democratic leader who was all the way optimist for equality, liberty, justice, and democracy,  He expressed the dissatisfaction against the family rana rule and its rulers for their  dissolute empowerment and luxuries. He also stood against the activities made by the British in Nepal.He became  the first elected pm in Nepal. Throughout his politics, he had spent prime time of life in several jails for the establishment of democracy in Nepal. He had spent more time in the sundarijal jail during his jail life. We respect and honors such a great personality as the true source of inspiration for the policy of national conciliation.


From the biography of such a great personality who left influences in the politics and in the literature, one can enlighten much and more such an unforgettable pillar with his greater contribution and influence left for this physical world in shrawan 6 2039 Bs forever. Physically he is no more now but he always remains in our hearts and in the memories.



Marco Polo

Marco polo was born in 1254 to a family  of merchants. His to a family of merchants His home was Venice. Italy venetian merchants bought and sold valuable Chinese goods, including precious silk cloth. Such goods were bought to Europe along an ancient route known as the silk road. The merchants also used the route to travel east on trending  missions. Marco's Mother died when he was a young boy. His family taught him to be a merchant. He learned how to read, calculate ,and use foreign money.


In 1269 Marco's father and uncle Niccolo and maffeo, returned  to venice after visiting china. In china they had met the mongol conqueror Kublai khan. The khan invited the polos to return. He asked  them to bring Christian scholars to explain the Christian religion to him. In 1271. Niccolo and Maffeo set out for china again. Marco, then 17 years old. Joined his father and uncle for the trip. Two priests also traveled with the polos. But the route was dangerous. And the priests soon turned back.  It took the polos four difficult years to reach china. The journey led across deserts and high mountains. They passed through wild countryside where bandits lurked, ready to rob and kill. They braved heat and cold, floods deep snowdrifts, and blinding sandstorms. At last they reached the summer palace of Kublai khan an shangdu.

The  khan  welcomed the polos warmly He offered Marco a job. Marco accepted. And the polos lived in china for the next 17 years. Marco traveled on many special missions across the khan's kingdom and to distant lands. When macro returners from his missions, He told the khan vivid stories about the people and lands he visited. Over time, the polos worried that Kublai khan would  not allow them to leave. Several times they  had asked the khan for permission to return  to Europe. But the khan  enjoyed his visitors so much that  he would not grant their wish. Finally, the khan changed his mind.


In 1292, Kublai khan asked Marco to escort a Mongol princess to Persia. The polos traveled by ship from china to the Persian gulf. Then the polos headed for Venice, Finally reaching  home in 1295 Marco had been away so long that nobody recognized him! We know about Marco's  travels because, in 1298, he became a prisoner of war. He shared his cell with a writer named rustichello, who helped marco turn his stories into a book. Rustichello  added some details of his own. But much of Marco,s book seems to be true.


Marco polo returned to Venice after his release from prison. He died in 1324. But his book remained popular for centuries. Merchants Mapmakers, and explorers all looked to the  book for information about Asian lands. Even the navigator Christopher Columbus owned 


Anne Frank

Anne Frank's Life was short and tragic. Yet her brave spirit  has survived in her diary. She wrote this diary shile hiding  from the Nazis during world war (1939-1945) Anne frank was born in Frankfurt, Germany, On june 12,1929. Her family was jewish. In 1933, the Nazi party came to power in Germany.  The Nazis blamed jews for the nations problems and began a campaign against jews. The frank family moved to Amsterdam in the Netherlands to escape the  Nazis. But in 1940, Germany invaded The Netherlands and jewish people there began to suffer under anti- policies.

Anne's Father prepared a handing place for his family. He sealed off several rooms at the back of his office building and he covered the entrance with a movable bookcase. In july 1942. Anne her mother and father her sister margot, and four jewish friends stepped behind the bookcase into the hidden rooms. The frank family and their friends stayed shut away in secret for over two years Brave friends risked their lives to bring them food. But constant fear and loss of freedom  were hard to bear. For comfort, anne started to write  a diary. She was very good at expressing her thoughts  and feeling in words.


Anne was 13 when she started to write . Her diary reveals that, just like others teenagers, she looked  forward to adult life. She hoped to have a career as a writer. And she longed to find love. She had high ideals and wished “to be useful or give pleasure to people around me”  Throughout her time in hiding Anne maintained her faith in human nature. She wrote.” In spite of everything.  I still believe that people are really good at heart” in 1944 the frank

family’s hiding place was betrayed to the gestapo (German) secret police) Anne was sent to the Bergen- Belsen prison camp in Germany. She died at the camp in 1945 at the age of 15.Otto. Anne’s father was the only member of the frank family to survive the war he Published her diary in 1947. Since then it has been published in more than 50 Languages. Millions of people have visited the family’s hiding place in Amsterdam Anne Frank’s story still inspires people to fight against all kinds of discrimination.


Explorer Roald Amundsen

Explorer Roald Amundsen was a hero twice over He was the first person ever to reach the south pole. And he died during a brave, risky quest to rescue a friend.
Amundsen was born in Norway in 1872. After studying medicine in college, he joined the Norwegian navy and went to sea. Amundsen led his first  expedition beginning in 1903. For three years he voyaged through the northwest passage, an east-west sea route north of Canada. He was the first explorer to successfully cross the passage. During the trip, Amundsen mane surveys and studied the weather. He also studied how the inuit people of northern Canada survived in the harsh arctic environment. Amundsen put his knowledge of freezing conditions to good use on his next expedition. This time he went to Antarctica, with hopes of reaching the south pole.
Amundsen spent more than a year comped out on the eastern edge  of  Antarctica. He took scientific measurements and made careful plans. From the far north, he brought inuit husky dogs to pull sleds packed. With the sleds fully loaded, Amundsen ied his men toward the south pole. They arrived at the pole on December 14,1911, Becoming the first people ever to get  there. They planted a Norwegian flag in the ice and began their  return trip. Amundsen reached the south pole just five weeks before his great rival, Gritish explorer Robert Scott.  Scott and his entire expedition party died on their return journey.
Amundsen became very famous. This helped him raise money for his next expedition. In 1918 Amundsen se off on a pioneering voyage through freezing seas close to the north pole. The expedition failed, as did a second one in 1922.  In 1926 Amundsen flew over the north pole in an airship called the norge. At that  time, air travel was very dangerous. The airship was designed and piloted by Umberto  Nobile, An Italian engineer who became Amundsen's friend.  After the flight, Amundsen and Nobile quarreled. Each man wanted to claim credit  for his own country for crossing the north pole first.  In 1928 a Second airship flown by Nobile disappeared close to the north pole, Amundsen volunteered to search for his friend. Nobile was eventually rescued, but Amundsen volunteered to search for his friend. Nobile was eventually rescued, but Amundsen and his all search crew were killed when their airplane crashed.


Napoleon Bonaparte.

Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769 on Corsica, an island in the Mediterranean sea. At the age of 16, Napoleon joined in the French army. In 1789, a revolution began that rocked France. The king and queen were executed. Hungry working  people demanded new freedoms.  Revolutionary governments  in France swept away old laws. They declared war on supporters of the former king./ The French Revolution lasted until 1799.Napoleon first showed his military skill fighting for the French revolution. In 1794 He captured the French city of Toulon, which supported rule by royalty. For this success, Napoleon saved the revolutionary government from rioters in Paris.
From 1796 to 1797, Napoleon commanded the French army on the Italian-French Border. While there, he managed to defeat bigger armies  from Austria, France. Chief enemy of the day. Napoleon went on to invade Egypt in 1798. Napoleon victories enlarged France's chief enemy of the day. Napoleon went on to invade Egypt in 1798.Napoleon victories enlarged France's territory. Napoleon returned to France as a hero. The French people had lost confidence in the revolutionary government. So napoleon decided to seize control. In November 1799, Napoleon set up a new government with himself as leader.

Napoleon reorganized national and local government. He made new laws that upheld religious freedom and other rights of the people. He introduced fairer taxes and a new education system From 1800  to 1802 he forced European countries that had joined together against France to agree to make peace. In 1804, Napoleon crowned himself emperor of France as napoleon I. He paid top artists to portray him in proud, P, Napoleon Invaded spain. Spanish fighters put up a fighters put up a fierce resistance. They used guerrilla tactics surprise attacks and rapid retreats making it impossible  for napoleon to win owerful pose. France was now the strongest nation in Europe. But  napoleon wasn't   satisfied. Ruthless, Restless, and always seeking glory, he dreamed of a mighty empire.
In 1805, Britain defeated France's Ships of the southern coast of Spain in the famous Battle of Trafalgar. But  by 1807, Napoleon had smashed Russian and Prussian armies and won more land for France. In 1811 Napoleon led 600,000 soldiers to invade Russia Through bitter winter weather, They marched to Moscow, Russia's capital. But they found themselves stranded. The Russians had set fire to much of the city. Destroying  food and shelter needed by napoleon's troops. Napoleon had to retreat. Over half his men died.
Soon after this loss, napoleon suffered another defeat at  leaping suffered another defeat at leaping Germany. The Courtiers allied against France forced napoleon to step down. He was sent into exile on the Mediterranean island of Elba, Near Italy. In 1813.Napoleon was not a man  to give in. 1815, he escaped from Elba and dashed back to Paris. There, He was greeted by cheering crowds Napoleon gathered an army and marched north into Belgium to face enemy forces. The Campaign in Belgium ended in disaster. Napoleon's outnumbered troops met a crushing defeat in the Battle of waterloo, one of history's most famous battles. Of waterloo, one of history's most famous battles.
Napoleon spent his last years as a prisoner on the island of saint Helena in the Atlantic ocean, He died in 1821. But Napoleon's Influence on France has lasted long after his death many of his reforms in law government. And education still govern French life called napoleon Bonaparte " a man of destiny" A hero in France, Napoleon was  Napoleon was then hated elsewhere in Europe. Today. Toda, he is remembered as on of the greatest military leaders of all time. He built  an empire that covered much of Europe. 



Aristotle was born in 384 BC in ancient Macedonia (Now Northern Greece),. His  father was a doctor. When Aristotle was 17, He went to Athens, the biggest and richest city in ancient  Greece. He stayed there  for most of his life studying and teaching. He set up his own school, where students discussed new ideas while strolling in the gardens. From 345 to 335 BC, Aristotle lived in Macedonia, He worked as tutor to prince Alexander, Who later became known as Alexander the Great. In 335 BC Aristotle returned to Athens, In 323 BC, Alexander died and his friends became unpopular, Aristotle was forced to leave his school in Athens. He died the next year, in 322 BC.


Aristotle studied many many  subjects But he was most interested in science, especially. Biology (the study of all living things).Zoology (the study of animals and astronomy (the study of the universe ) He tried to find out how humans think and how  they experience the world around them He also tried to describe  Invisible things, such as the  mind and the soul he invented a new science, called causality. It explained why things happen. In all his investigations, Aristotle pioneered a new way of studying he looked for clues in what he saw and for proof. He didn't use guesswork or accept whatever people already believed. His method of questioning changed the way scholars worked for many centuries.

Aristotle write Many books and he kept notes to help teach his students. These might easily have been lost after ancient Greek civilization  collapsed. But Muslim scientists carefully preserved these writings an passed them on to scholars in Europe and Asia. Aristotle's Ideas spread around the world. Today, he is remembered as one of the greatest philosophers who ever lived.



Plato was born about 428 BC in Athens, Greece, He became a pupil of Greek  Philosopher He became a pupil of Greek philosopher Socrates. Then he set up a school in 387 BC. He called his school the academy. Pupils studied astronomy, biology, Mathematics politics, and philosophy at the academy. Plato was a very original thinker who lived in ancient  Greece. He asked questions that nobody had asked before. He even tried to explain how the human mind works.


Plato wrote dialogues debates that he imagined taking place between teachers and pupils. He hoped these dialogues would help students understand his  ideas Plato investigated many topics from friendship  to the heavens. But his most  important work was a study of knowledge. Plato believed that we learn about the world in two different ways. We get useful information through our senses, like sight and touch. But we reach truth by using a higher ability, which he called reason. Plato said that our  senses give us imperfect knowledge, because they tell us about specific objects. But our reason gives us truth, or perfect knowledge, because it tells us about ideas.

Plato also studied politics and government. He believed  that the best government  has a philosopher in charge. The minds of philosophers are trained to use reason and understand ideas. According to Plato the knowledge the gain this way  would help them govern widely and create the best conditions for the people they rule. After many years at the academy Plato wanted to test his beliefs, in 367 BC, He went to Syracuse on the island of Sicily, off the coast of Italy, He went there to teach  the new ruler of Syracuse to be a philosopher. But he failed in this  effort. Plato returned to write and study in Athens. He died at the age of 80 in 347 BC.


Isaac Newton

Newton was born in woolsthorpe,  England, on December 25,1642. He loved to build mechanical models, But he was not a good students. His mothers took him out of school so that he could help run the family farm. That he could help run the family farm. Newton did not like farming. He liked to read and study on his own. A former teacher knew that newton was very smart and helped him go to the university of Cambridge. After newton graduated, bubonic plague broke out in Cambridge. Many people got sick and died. Newton went back to the family farm for two years until the plague died down. He came up with many of his greatest ideas from 1665 to 1667 while he was alone in the countryside.


Newton invented a new kind of mathematics called calculus. Today, scientists and engineers use calculus to solve many kinds of problems. Newton cam up with theories about gravity and motion. He thought that the same force pulling people and apples down to earth keeps the mon going around earth and the planets going around the sun. He used mathematics to prove his theories Newton used a prism a piece of glass with many sides to study light. He  found that sunlight is made up of every color in the rainbow.


Newton went back to Cambridge and became a profession of mathematics. He Built the first reflecting telescope, which uses mirrors instead of lenses he became famous for his calculus, but he did not tell many people about his theory of gravity he was shy and modest and did not want other scientists to criticize his work.  Finally His friends had him write a book about gravity and motion title  principia Mathematica scientists called the book a masterpiece. Newton was made a knight when he died on march 20.1727, He became the first scientist to be buried in Westminster abbey in London. He became on of the greatest scientists'  of all time.